[CyL3D] More voxelizing and simulation

For the past week, we have been discussing a lot the components we will have. We mainly focused on the power supply, our photosensor(s), our Wi-Fi module(s) and our LED driver.

For more information about our hardware decisions, you may look at Ambroise, Guillaume and Baptiste’s posts.

In my last post, I showed you how I created a vtkUnstructuredGrid that fits our display system. The past week, I managed to extract geometrical data and color from the meshes in Blender and I tried a lot of different ways to fit the mesh geometrical data into my grid representing our cylinder.

The voxelizing algorithm takes in input a list of colored meshes and outputs an image that is the slices of the scene containing the meshes.

As we have a 40×30 LED panel and 256 steps per rotation, I decided to output one frame as a 1200×256 image, where every row is a different slice of our scene and the 1200 pixels in each row represent the RGB components of the LEDs, going from left to right, top to bottom. This image is currently saved as .bmp and .raw (which is basically BMP without the header) files.

I created multiple scenes to test out our algorithm. Below, you can see the result of voxelizing different kind of meshes. The first picture will be the model of the mesh I tried to voxelize. The second one will be the output of the algorithm, which is the 1200×256 reprensenting the LED configurations at each angle. The third one is how the LED configurations should appear to our eyes with our real system (it is a simulator, written by Guillaume using Processing — it works pretty well!)

 Voxelization results

Colored cube

Original cube model
Voxelizing algorithm output
Simulation of the colored cube display

Green cylinder

Green cylinder model with 32 faces
Voxelizing algorithm output of green cylinder
Simulation of the green cylinder display

Bi-colored Sphere

Bi-colored sphere model
Voxelizing algorithm output of bi-colored sphere
Simulation of the bi-colored sphere display

Colored text

Colored text model
Voxelizing algorithm output of colored text
Simulation of the colored text display

Results interpretation

As we can see, our voxelizing algorithm is not perfect but we can easily recognize the original meshes. Let’s see the pros and cons of the current algorithm.

Pros:

  • A cylinder of diameter 4:3 and a height of 1 is perfectly mapped to our system.
  • We can easily recognize shapes and texts although it does not feel perfectly aligned.
  • The raw output is well-fit for our system : reading sequentially the output file gives the different slices of a frame, in the correct order.
  • The algorithm can basically voxelize any colored mesh scene.
  • Blender has an animation framework and it should not be too much work to make a video with our algorithm : by simply voxelizing every frame and displaying them one after the other, we can get a 3D video.

Cons:

  • The algorithm is slow for now (1 second for a simple cube, about 1 minute for a scene with 500 polygons) but it is written in Python. It is not really optimized for now as I did this for prototyping but it can be rewritten in C and we can have Blender call the C program instead of having it to execute the whole algorithm in Python. On top of that, it can be rather easily multi-threaded. Indeed, the treatment of each slice is independent from the others. 
  • The complexity of the algorithm is linear with the number of polygons in the scene, making the voxelization of complex scenes in real time quite complicated.
  • Straight lines aliasing can be seen when the faces are displayed on a big radius. But this is rather a resolution problem than an algorithm problem and there’s not too much we can do about it. If we have a big quad, it is best to show it in the middle of the scene and with a small scale as this is where the LED density is the biggest and there is not much aliasing.
  • There is some noise in our sphere voxelization – but perhaps it is due to the fact that the sphere modeled in blender is an UV-sphere with not that many faces.

File size and compression

Ultimately, the frames or the video will be either put on the flash of our system or sent/streamed through the Wi-Fi. In such cases, file size is important. Here our models are pretty simple, but having a lot of unlit LEDs makes the output image of the algorithm a sparse image. When you have sparse data, it is easy to compress.

Below, you can see how much our out images are compressible. I used gzip -c6 to compress the raw files and see how much they could be compressed. Here are the results :

File sizes of our raw data and gzipped data

As we can see, the compressed file is about 1% of the raw file. On top of that, gzip is quite easy to use (there are portable libs online of about 200 lines of code and this definitely runs on a Cortex-A9) – fast (and the speed/compression ratio can be set)  – and efficient.

I do not expect to see a 100:1 compression ratio on every scene I could voxelize but it is rather comforting to see that we can ultimately use compression in our system if needed.

If you have any idea on how we could improve our results or any feedback to give, please comment.

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