## [LASMO] SD card and galvanometers in the PCB design

Because finishing the design of the PCB is now the priority task, I’ve been working on several parts of it: namely, linking the SD card connector and the galvanometer drivers.

#### MicroSD connector

The microSD card connector we found in ExpeditionPCB is manufactured by JAE (Japan Aviation Electronics). The pins correspond to those of the microSD standard and are linked to one of the SPI interfaces available on the STM32F7. MicroSD cards can work on supply voltage from 2.7 to 3.3V, so we just use the same 3.3V supply as the F7.

#### Galvanometer drivers

The drivers of the galvanometer work with a balanced analog input ranging from 0 to 5V. Since the DAC of the F7 outputs a single-ended signal ranging from 0 to 3.1V (according to the datasheet), this is an issue we had to resolve.

We basically had to convert an analog single-ended signal to a balanced one, and amplify it with a 5/3.1 ratio. We achieved this by using an ADA4941-1 amplifier with two resistances, as represented below.

This circuit is composed of a non-inverting amplifier (taking IN and FB as entry), which, with the resistances of 10kΩ and 6.2kΩ, multiplies the signal by 1+3.1/5 = 1.62 = 5/3.1 (approximately). Then a inverting amplifier with a gain of 1, create a signal symmetric to the OUTP signal with respect to the REF signal value. We set REF at 5V so that the signal can have a 5V range around the offset value of 5V. That’s also why we linked the REF signal to the GND port of the driver, so that the driver can see the signal as a balanced signal.

## [LASMO] DAC constraints

The galvanometers are controlled by an analog signal input (between -5V and +5V). So, we have to use DACs in order to convert each digital coordinate. In the ILDA Format, each coordinate are code on 16 bits, but very few microcontroller embed 16 bits DAC. It’s generally DAC of 12 bits we can find on common microcontroller (like STM32 series).
With 12 bits on each coordinate, the display resolution is 4096×4096, witch is bigger than the 4K resolution (3840×2160) ! 12 bits for each DAC are quite enough.

Most of DAC on STM32 can operate up to 1 Msps (megasamples per second) and it’s compatible with our 30Kpps (and so 30Ksps).
Most of DAC on STM32 have an output signal voltage of approximately VDD=~3,3V. If we want an -5V/+5V range, we must use an AOP. For this king of gain (<10), most of AOP can easily operate at our speed ( 30Kpps ).

In conclusion, it will be easy to find a microprocessor with DAC  requirements. The only constraint is the number of DACs: a minimum of two for the two axes but a third is required if we want use an analog LASER control (in opposite of TTL control).